1. Religious Studies professor Bart Ehrman, author of How Jesus Became God, takes on questions surrounding the resurrection: 

Was Jesus put in a tomb and three days later that tomb was found empty? Well, that’s a historical question. And to answer it, it doesn’t require any set of religious beliefs; you can simply look at the sources and draw some historical conclusions. …
Before I wrote this book and did the research on it, I was convinced as many people are, that Jesus was given a decent burial and on the third day the women went to the tomb, found it empty, and that started the belief in the resurrection.
Apart from the fact that I don’t think Jesus was given a decent burial — that he was probably thrown into a common grave of some kind — apart from that, I was struck in doing my research by the fact that the New Testament never indicates that people came to believe in the resurrection because of the empty tomb. This was a striking find because it’s just commonly said that that’s what led to the resurrection belief.
But if you think about it for a second, it makes sense that the empty tomb wouldn’t make anybody believe. If you put somebody in a tomb and three days later you go back and the body’s not in the tomb, your first thought isn’t, “Oh, he’s been exalted to heaven and made the son of God.” Your first thought is, “Somebody stole the body.” Or “Somebody moved the body.” Or, “Hey, I’m at the wrong tomb.” You don’t think he’s been exalted to heaven. In the New Testament it’s striking that in the gospels the empty tomb leads to confusion but it doesn’t lead to belief. What leads to belief is that some of the followers of Jesus have visions of him afterwards.


Michelangelo, The Resurrection (1532), Royal Collection, London View in High-Res

    Religious Studies professor Bart Ehrman, author of How Jesus Became God, takes on questions surrounding the resurrection: 

    Was Jesus put in a tomb and three days later that tomb was found empty? Well, that’s a historical question. And to answer it, it doesn’t require any set of religious beliefs; you can simply look at the sources and draw some historical conclusions. …

    Before I wrote this book and did the research on it, I was convinced as many people are, that Jesus was given a decent burial and on the third day the women went to the tomb, found it empty, and that started the belief in the resurrection.

    Apart from the fact that I don’t think Jesus was given a decent burial — that he was probably thrown into a common grave of some kind — apart from that, I was struck in doing my research by the fact that the New Testament never indicates that people came to believe in the resurrection because of the empty tomb. This was a striking find because it’s just commonly said that that’s what led to the resurrection belief.

    But if you think about it for a second, it makes sense that the empty tomb wouldn’t make anybody believe. If you put somebody in a tomb and three days later you go back and the body’s not in the tomb, your first thought isn’t, “Oh, he’s been exalted to heaven and made the son of God.” Your first thought is, “Somebody stole the body.” Or “Somebody moved the body.” Or, “Hey, I’m at the wrong tomb.” You don’t think he’s been exalted to heaven. In the New Testament it’s striking that in the gospels the empty tomb leads to confusion but it doesn’t lead to belief. What leads to belief is that some of the followers of Jesus have visions of him afterwards.

    Michelangelo, The Resurrection (1532), Royal Collection, London

  2. jesus

    christianity

    resurrection

    history

    bart ehrman

    religion

  1. Picture this. You’re a young girl, living in a remote town in Connecticut in 1825. You’ve taken refuge in a neighbor’s house and, as night falls, you peek out a widow to see your friends and family members assembling outdoors around two crude paintings: One is of a young white woman (you); the other painting is of a man, a Native American.

    As church bells begin to toll, some of the townspeople carry forward fake bodies meant to represent you and the man in the painting; someone else ignites a barrel of tar and the effigies begin burning — an image of looming eternal damnation. You get the message: Stick with your own kind or else.

    This fantastical tableau sounds like something out of an Early American version of The Hunger Games, but it really took place.

    — Maureen Corrigan reviews The Heathen School by historian John Demos, a narrative that “explore[s] how racial categories and attitudes have changed over time in America.”

  2. race

    racism

    history

    nonfiction

    john demos

    native americans

    maureen corrigan

    review

  1. Mark Harris spoke to Fresh Air on Monday about how five major Hollywood filmmakers chronicled World War II. The footage was intended to document combat for the War Department, as well as show American audiences what was happening overseas. In the interview, Harris explains how the footage of D-Day came to be:


[Directors] George Stevens (for the Army) and John Ford (for the Navy) were really the ones that came up with a concerted plan. … It involved hundreds of cameras, hundreds of cameramen, dozens of cameras fixed to the front of landing vessels.
What is ironic is that most of the footage that was shot at D-Day was destroyed. Many of the stationary cameras didn’t function. The cameramen miraculously almost all survived, but a lot of their footage didn’t. So there was no way to create a clear narrative, chronological structure of what happened at D-Day out of the footage. What there was was an extraordinary amount of raw footage that was then collected from every camera, and every cameraman, that hadn’t malfunctioned. It was all sort of packed up, sent to England and edited, apparently, into several hours of continuous footage that was shown to the War Department back in the United States.
Most of the most shocking footage, the most realistic footage, the best footage, if you will, from D-Day was much too raw and frightening and upsetting to be shown to home front audiences. So while movie theaters across the country advertised for 10 days with signs outside that said, “Ten Days Until First Footage Of D-Day” … the actual footage that made its way to theaters was a very carefully manicured selection of stuff that was acceptable to show …
Most of the D-Day footage was not shown until much, much later. And really, you’d have to go forward to the movie Saving Private Ryan, the first part of which is a recreation of D-Day that is in part inspired by that never-seen footage.



photo of soldiers approaching Omaha Beach in Normandy on D-Day via wikimedia commons View in High-Res

    Mark Harris spoke to Fresh Air on Monday about how five major Hollywood filmmakers chronicled World War II. The footage was intended to document combat for the War Department, as well as show American audiences what was happening overseas. In the interview, Harris explains how the footage of D-Day came to be:

    [Directors] George Stevens (for the Army) and John Ford (for the Navy) were really the ones that came up with a concerted plan. … It involved hundreds of cameras, hundreds of cameramen, dozens of cameras fixed to the front of landing vessels.

    What is ironic is that most of the footage that was shot at D-Day was destroyed. Many of the stationary cameras didn’t function. The cameramen miraculously almost all survived, but a lot of their footage didn’t. So there was no way to create a clear narrative, chronological structure of what happened at D-Day out of the footage. What there was was an extraordinary amount of raw footage that was then collected from every camera, and every cameraman, that hadn’t malfunctioned. It was all sort of packed up, sent to England and edited, apparently, into several hours of continuous footage that was shown to the War Department back in the United States.

    Most of the most shocking footage, the most realistic footage, the best footage, if you will, from D-Day was much too raw and frightening and upsetting to be shown to home front audiences. So while movie theaters across the country advertised for 10 days with signs outside that said, “Ten Days Until First Footage Of D-Day” … the actual footage that made its way to theaters was a very carefully manicured selection of stuff that was acceptable to show …

    Most of the D-Day footage was not shown until much, much later. And really, you’d have to go forward to the movie Saving Private Ryan, the first part of which is a recreation of D-Day that is in part inspired by that never-seen footage.

    photo of soldiers approaching Omaha Beach in Normandy on D-Day via wikimedia commons

  2. d-day

    war

    world war II

    hollywood

    history

    fresh air

    interview

    mark harris

  1. During World War II some of Hollywood's biggest filmmakers enlisted not to fight, but to film combat. These short documentaries (commissioned by the War Department) were intended to show Americans what was at stake and stir up patriotic feelings.
Today author Mark Harristells us about this groundbreaking footage by John Ford, George Stevens, John Huston, William Wyler and Frank Capra.
George Stevens’ chronicles of the liberation at the concentration camp Dachau was used as evidence in the Nuremberg Trials:

"What [Director George] Stevens filmed at Dachau was so painful that he didn’t talk about it for decades afterwards. But what we think of now as some of the images of Holocaust atrocity that are burned into our collective consciousness — that’s what Stevens saw: bodies in boxcars; starving, dying, skeletal people; bodies covered in snow; body parts; crematoria.
The worst things that we know of what the Nazis did in the death camps and the concentration camps were news to Stevens and his men, and of course to America when he discovered them. Imagine walking into Dachau not knowing what a death camp was and seeing what he saw. So he did the only thing that he could do, which was to record it. At that point, he was no longer interested in making a documentary, what he was doing and what he knew he was doing from the first hour that he was there was gathering evidence.”


Harris’ book is called Five Came Back: A Story Of Hollywood And The Second World War

An entrance gate with the words “Arbeit Macht Frei” (“Work Brings Freedom”) at Dachau concentration camp. photo via History cred Ted Horowitz/Corbis View in High-Res

    During World War II some of Hollywood's biggest filmmakers enlisted not to fight, but to film combat. These short documentaries (commissioned by the War Department) were intended to show Americans what was at stake and stir up patriotic feelings.

    Today author Mark Harristells us about this groundbreaking footage by John Ford, George Stevens, John Huston, William Wyler and Frank Capra.

    George Stevens’ chronicles of the liberation at the concentration camp Dachau was used as evidence in the Nuremberg Trials:

    "What [Director George] Stevens filmed at Dachau was so painful that he didn’t talk about it for decades afterwards. But what we think of now as some of the images of Holocaust atrocity that are burned into our collective consciousness — that’s what Stevens saw: bodies in boxcars; starving, dying, skeletal people; bodies covered in snow; body parts; crematoria.

    The worst things that we know of what the Nazis did in the death camps and the concentration camps were news to Stevens and his men, and of course to America when he discovered them. Imagine walking into Dachau not knowing what a death camp was and seeing what he saw. So he did the only thing that he could do, which was to record it. At that point, he was no longer interested in making a documentary, what he was doing and what he knew he was doing from the first hour that he was there was gathering evidence.”

    Harris’ book is called Five Came Back: A Story Of Hollywood And The Second World War

    An entrance gate with the words “Arbeit Macht Frei” (“Work Brings Freedom”) at Dachau concentration camp. photo via History cred Ted Horowitz/Corbis

  2. history

    world war II

    hollywood

    film history

    concentration camp

    george stevens

    dachau

    mark harris

    interview

    fresh air

  1. During the early stages of World War I the German government unleashed an aggressive campaign of sabotage and spying on U.S. soil.  Today we explore this “secret war” and the little-known stories behind the “first terrorist cell in America” with author Howard Blum. He explains the early attempts at sabotage:

"The logic of the German spy masters — and this was a very narrow logic, and I don’t think they understood the American mind — [was that] if they could keep America occupied, if America had to worry about what was happening at home — to its own munitions factories, to its own even subways and bridges — if America had to fear what was happening along the home front, then they wouldn’t have … the volition to want to go off and fight in a war across an ocean."


photo of the Black Tom explosion in 1916 via Smithsonian/wikimedia commons

    During the early stages of World War I the German government unleashed an aggressive campaign of sabotage and spying on U.S. soil.  Today we explore this “secret war” and the little-known stories behind the “first terrorist cell in America” with author Howard Blum. He explains the early attempts at sabotage:

    "The logic of the German spy masters — and this was a very narrow logic, and I don’t think they understood the American mind — [was that] if they could keep America occupied, if America had to worry about what was happening at home — to its own munitions factories, to its own even subways and bridges — if America had to fear what was happening along the home front, then they wouldn’t have … the volition to want to go off and fight in a war across an ocean."

    photo of the Black Tom explosion in 1916 via Smithsonian/wikimedia commons

  2. fresh air

    interview

    world war I

    germany

    spies

    war

    terrorism

    howard blum

    black tom explosion

    1917

    history

  1. Today historian David Kertzer talks to us about his new book The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe. In the interview he explains why the Catholic Church was interested in allying with dictator Benito Mussolini in the 1920’s and 30’s: 

The popes had seen the Italian government as enemies, basically. They had rejected the notion of the separation of church and state, they had lost their privileged position in society, and they had always called that system illegitimate. Pius XI at least began to see the possibility that Mussolini might be the person sent by God — the man of providence — as he would later refer to him … who would reverse all of that, who would end the separation of church and state, restore many of the prerogatives of the church and at the same time, as the Pope was very worried about the rising socialist movement … saw Mussolini as the man who was the best bet, perhaps, to prevent a socialist takeover of Italy.


photo of St. Peter’s Basilica via flickr 

    Today historian David Kertzer talks to us about his new book The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe. In the interview he explains why the Catholic Church was interested in allying with dictator Benito Mussolini in the 1920’s and 30’s: 

    The popes had seen the Italian government as enemies, basically. They had rejected the notion of the separation of church and state, they had lost their privileged position in society, and they had always called that system illegitimate. Pius XI at least began to see the possibility that Mussolini might be the person sent by God — the man of providence — as he would later refer to him … who would reverse all of that, who would end the separation of church and state, restore many of the prerogatives of the church and at the same time, as the Pope was very worried about the rising socialist movement … saw Mussolini as the man who was the best bet, perhaps, to prevent a socialist takeover of Italy.

    photo of St. Peter’s Basilica via flickr 

  2. fresh air

    interview

    mussolini

    pope

    catholic church

    italy

    history

    david kertzer

    brown university

  1. [Franklin D. Roosevelt] had to persuade people to feel comfortable in his presence…. [The therapists and he] began to work on his gait, to work on the way he would walk with the canes and crutches and assistance he would use. So his walk, although slow, began to look more and more natural. And he would seat himself, and he would throw up his head, he would begin to talk — he was always talking, actually — to put people at ease. And this whole physical routine that he developed of putting people at ease was enormously effective, and it made people forget that he was disabled.

    — Historian James Tobin speaks to Fresh Air about how FDR turned his polio disability into a political advantage

  2. fresh air

    FDR

    franklin d. roosevelt

    polio

    disability

    history

    president

    james tobin

  1. It’s a problem in our culture because, to be quite blunt about it, most Americans want their history to be essentially progressive and triumphal. They want it to be a pleasing story and if you go back to [the story of slavery] it’s not always going to please you but it’s a story you have to work through to find your way to something more redemptive.

    — 

    Dr. David Blight, Professor of History at Yale

    Join us today to hear us examine the film 12 Years A Slave with the film’s director (Steve McQueen) and star (Chiwetel Ejiofor) and with David Blight, who specializes in the history of the domestic slave trade.

  2. fresh air

    12 years a slave

    david blight

    slavery

    history

  1. 12 Years A Slave is one of the most talked about movies to come out of the film festivals.

Tomorrow we speak to Director Steve McQueen and star Chiwetel Ejiofor (above) about making the film. Then we speak to Yale University Professor of History Dr. David Blight to put the film (based on the memoir published in 1853) into context. 


Dr. Blight says, “One gets a sense from those scenes [in the film adaptation] of just how much slaves were utterly commodities, physical commodities in the slave trade.” View in High-Res

    12 Years A Slave is one of the most talked about movies to come out of the film festivals.

    Tomorrow we speak to Director Steve McQueen and star Chiwetel Ejiofor (above) about making the film. Then we speak to Yale University Professor of History Dr. David Blight to put the film (based on the memoir published in 1853) into context.

    Dr. Blight says, “One gets a sense from those scenes [in the film adaptation] of just how much slaves were utterly commodities, physical commodities in the slave trade.”

  2. fresh air

    interview

    12 years a slave

    steve mcqueen

    chiwetel ejiofor

    slavery

    yale university

    history

    david blight

  1. A. Scott Berg, author of the new biography “Wilson" (about President Woodrow Wilson) is on the show tomorrow. 
Berg says while writing the book, “[Wilson] became more human to me. I try to paint the portrait with all those colors to show that this was a deeply flawed human being, and that being said, I think his idealism still resonates.” View in High-Res

    A. Scott Berg, author of the new biography “Wilson" (about President Woodrow Wilson) is on the show tomorrow.

    Berg says while writing the book, “[Wilson] became more human to me. I try to paint the portrait with all those colors to show that this was a deeply flawed human being, and that being said, I think his idealism still resonates.”

  2. fresh air

    woodrow wilson

    A. Scott Berg

    Wilson

    president

    history

    biography

  1. Lynne Olson tells Terry Gross why many students opposed U.S. intervention in World War II:

[T]hese kids were basically saying, ‘Hell no, we don’t want to go to war. This is something we absolutely do not want to do.’ And this major isolationist organization, … America First, was founded by a bunch of Yale students — Yale law students and Yale undergraduates — and among them were young men who went on to have incredibly illustrious careers. … Gerald Ford was a Yale law student and he was one of the founders of America First. Potter Stewart, who later went on the Supreme Court, was also a founder. Sargent Shriver, the first head of the Peace Corps, was a founder, as was Kingman Brewster, who later became president of Yale and, quite ironically, U.S. ambassador to Great Britain. Among the students who supported America First were John F. Kennedy, who was a Harvard senior, and Kurt Vonnegut and a young prep school student named  Gore Vidal.

Image via S-USIH

    Lynne Olson tells Terry Gross why many students opposed U.S. intervention in World War II:

    [T]hese kids were basically saying, ‘Hell no, we don’t want to go to war. This is something we absolutely do not want to do.’ And this major isolationist organization, … America First, was founded by a bunch of Yale students — Yale law students and Yale undergraduates — and among them were young men who went on to have incredibly illustrious careers. … Gerald Ford was a Yale law student and he was one of the founders of America First. Potter Stewart, who later went on the Supreme Court, was also a founder. Sargent Shriver, the first head of the Peace Corps, was a founder, as was Kingman Brewster, who later became president of Yale and, quite ironically, U.S. ambassador to Great Britain. Among the students who supported America First were John F. Kennedy, who was a Harvard senior, and Kurt Vonnegut and a young prep school student named Gore Vidal.

    Image via S-USIH

  2. Fresh Air

    Interviews

    Lynne Olson

    Those Angry Days

    America First Committee

    Charles Lindbergh

    Franklin Roosevelt

    History

    World War II

  1. Author Lynne Olson talks to Terry Gross about whether Charles Lindbergh was sympathetic to the Nazi ideology

I’m not so sure it was the Nazi ideology. He admired the Germans’ technological expertise. Bottom line: Charles Lindbergh was a technocrat. That’s what he was really interested in and the Germans were experts in technology and he also admired what the Germans had done in terms of reviving country and he certainly was sympathetic with Germany. Often he would say, ‘You know, I don’t approve of what they’re doing to the Jews. I don’t approve of their denial of freedoms,’ but you never really got the sense that he felt very strongly about that.

Image of Charles Lindbergh emerging from the White House on April 20, 1939 after meeting with President Franklin Roosevelt via the Library of Congress View in High-Res

    Author Lynne Olson talks to Terry Gross about whether Charles Lindbergh was sympathetic to the Nazi ideology

    I’m not so sure it was the Nazi ideology. He admired the Germans’ technological expertise. Bottom line: Charles Lindbergh was a technocrat. That’s what he was really interested in and the Germans were experts in technology and he also admired what the Germans had done in terms of reviving country and he certainly was sympathetic with Germany. Often he would say, ‘You know, I don’t approve of what they’re doing to the Jews. I don’t approve of their denial of freedoms,’ but you never really got the sense that he felt very strongly about that.

    Image of Charles Lindbergh emerging from the White House on April 20, 1939 after meeting with President Franklin Roosevelt via the Library of Congress

  2. Fresh Air

    Interviews

    Lynne Olson

    Those Angry Days

    Charles Lindbergh

    Franklin D. Roosevelt

    World War II

    History

  1. John Collins tells Terry Gross about what kind of Messiah people who collected the Dead Sea Scrolls expected:

Most people wanted a big strong warrior who would drive out the Romans, who would smash heads. So, if you look at this then from the viewpoint of TheNew Testament, the question is, ‘Why would anybody have thought that Jesus of Nazareth fit that description?’ And actually I think that bothered his followers, too, and if you read the through The New Testament, the answer they come up with eventually is, ‘Well, he wasn’t first time round but when he comes back: watch out.’ And in the Book of Revelation, you know, Jesus comes as a warrior with a sword coming out of his mouth to strike down the wicked and that’s kind of the classic view of the messiah at the time.

Image by 00nanga via Flickr

    John Collins tells Terry Gross about what kind of Messiah people who collected the Dead Sea Scrolls expected:

    Most people wanted a big strong warrior who would drive out the Romans, who would smash heads. So, if you look at this then from the viewpoint of TheNew Testament, the question is, ‘Why would anybody have thought that Jesus of Nazareth fit that description?’ And actually I think that bothered his followers, too, and if you read the through The New Testament, the answer they come up with eventually is, ‘Well, he wasn’t first time round but when he comes back: watch out.’ And in the Book of Revelation, you know, Jesus comes as a warrior with a sword coming out of his mouth to strike down the wicked and that’s kind of the classic view of the messiah at the time.

    Image by 00nanga via Flickr

  2. Fresh Air

    Interviews

    John J. Collins

    Dead Sea Scrolls

    Jesus of Nazareth

    history

  1. Posted on 2 October, 2012

    341 notes | Permalink

    Reblogged from livelymorgue

    Morning - fire drill! Well, false alarm. But here’s a scenario to keep in mind the next time you have one.

    livelymorgue:

    Oct. 2, 1963: Probationary firemen participated in a drill described in The Times “one of the biggest — but safest — ‘fires’ in town.” Audience members laughed and cheered while 30 people were “rescued” by firemen at a five-story tower on Welfare Island. The fire college site was dedicated by the city and was said to be “the finest” in the world at the time. Photo: Meyer Liebowitz/The New York Tmes

  2. firedrill

    history

  1. At one point, when Theodore Roosevelt was police commissioner of New York, he and his men raided one of the Thomashefsky theaters. And he saw Bessie, who was very young and looked much younger than she was always, and he said, ‘Look out little girl.’ And she said, ‘Little girl, my ass. If anyone’s being taken in, it’s me.’

    — On today’s Fresh Air, the story of the Thomashefskys, stars of the Yiddish stage.

  2. yiddish

    theater

    michael tilson thomas

    thomashefskys

    new york city

    history