1. Dr. Martin Blaser is an expert on the human microbiome, which is the collection of bacteria, viruses, fungi and other microbes that live in and on the body. In fact, about 70 to 90 percent of all the cells in the human body aren’t human at all — they’re micro-organisms. 
Blaser is the author of Missing Microbes, and speculates that overuse of antibiotics causes food allergies, asthma, and intestinal disorders.
If antibiotics are wiping out these micro-organisms, then probiotics are putting some of them back in. 
Here’s what Dr. Blaser says about the use of probiotics: 

"There are many different probiotics. If you go to the grocery store, the health food store, the drugstore, there are shelves and shelves full of probiotics [with] different names, different compositions. I think I can say three things: The first is that they’re almost completely unregulated; second is that they seem to be generally safe; and third is that they’re mostly untested about the important reasons that people even want to take probiotics because they don’t feel well or they have particular symptoms …
Right now, it’s the Wild West. I’m actually a big believer in probiotics; I think that’s going to be part of the future of medicine, that we’re going to understand the science of the microbiome well enough so that we can look at a sample from a child and say this child is lacking such-and-such an organism and now we’re going to take it off the shelf and we’re going to give it back to that child … Just as today the kids are lining up for the vaccines, in the future, maybe the kids are going to be drinking certain organisms so that we can replace the ones that they’ve lost.”
View in High-Res

    Dr. Martin Blaser is an expert on the human microbiome, which is the collection of bacteria, viruses, fungi and other microbes that live in and on the body. In fact, about 70 to 90 percent of all the cells in the human body aren’t human at all — they’re micro-organisms. 

    Blaser is the author of Missing Microbes, and speculates that overuse of antibiotics causes food allergies, asthma, and intestinal disorders.

    If antibiotics are wiping out these micro-organisms, then probiotics are putting some of them back in. 

    Here’s what Dr. Blaser says about the use of probiotics: 

    "There are many different probiotics. If you go to the grocery store, the health food store, the drugstore, there are shelves and shelves full of probiotics [with] different names, different compositions. I think I can say three things: The first is that they’re almost completely unregulated; second is that they seem to be generally safe; and third is that they’re mostly untested about the important reasons that people even want to take probiotics because they don’t feel well or they have particular symptoms …

    Right now, it’s the Wild West. I’m actually a big believer in probiotics; I think that’s going to be part of the future of medicine, that we’re going to understand the science of the microbiome well enough so that we can look at a sample from a child and say this child is lacking such-and-such an organism and now we’re going to take it off the shelf and we’re going to give it back to that child … Just as today the kids are lining up for the vaccines, in the future, maybe the kids are going to be drinking certain organisms so that we can replace the ones that they’ve lost.”

  2. medicine

    science

    research

    probiotics

    microbiome

    dr. martin blaser

    microbes

    allergies

    interview

    fresh air

  1. Posted on 11 April, 2014

    381 notes | Permalink

    Reblogged from notesondesign

    We’re outta here.  
Have a great weekend,
Fresh Air

    We’re outta here.  

    Have a great weekend,

    Fresh Air

  2. Weekend

    let's go somewhere

    fresh air

    friday

  1. By now you’ve probably heard the song “Let It Go" from Frozen more than a few times—and you’ve probably gotten it stuck in your head, too. That’s the work of songwriters Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez, the Oscar-winning couple behind the Disney mega-hit.  Robert also co-wrote the satirical musicals The Book of Mormon and Avenue Q.  In the interview, Kristen tells Fresh Air why she set out to write a different kind of princess story: 

    Kristen Anderson-Lopez: If you have the deluxe CD you will see my very strong, strike-across-the-bow at all princess myth things in the form of a song called “We Know Better,” which was a song that was cut, but it basically was these two princesses bonding over all of the things that the world expects and thinks of them. [The world thinks] that they’re perfect and sweet and sugar and spice and all things nice and it was the two of them misbehaving and being fully well-rounded children with all the good and bad and imagination and mischief that I really feel that it’s important for our girls to be allowed to be.

    It got cut, but you can tell the whole movie is full of this point of view as much as Jennifer Lee and I could put in it, because we’re both Park Slope moms, we both went through the 90s, we took the women’s studies courses, and I knew I wouldn’t be able to push my kids on the swing at the playground if I had written a movie where the girl wore the puffy dress and was saved not by anything active she did but by being beautiful enough to be kissed by a prince.

    Photo (Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times) and Disney

  2. frozen

    disney

    interview

    fresh air

    kristen anderson-lopez

    robert lopez

    feminism

  1. Big news: CBS just announced Stephen Colbert will replace David Letterman on The Late Show next year. Thoughts?

    You can hear the 2012 Fresh Air interview here

  2. stephen colbert

    the late show

    the colbert report

    fresh air

    interview

    terry gross

  1. Idina Menzel performs Let It Go from Frozen with Jimmy Fallon and The Roots.

    Thursday 4/10: We speak to songwriters Robert Lopez and Kristen Anderson Lopez who wrote the music for the Disney movie Frozen (including Let It Go).  Robert Lopez also co-created the musicals The Book of Mormon and Avenue Q.  

  2. frozen

    disney

    book of mormon

    avenue q

    let it go

    musical

    interview

    fresh air

  1. Edie Falco, star of the Showtime series Nurse Jackie, joins Fresh Air to discuss life in scrubs, addiction, and the years she spent as Carmela Soprano on The Sopranos. Like her character Jackie, Falco herself struggles with addiction. Terry asked if that’s what made her interested in the role: 

"I have to say, I never really know what makes me want to do a role. It’s some sort of wordless place, you know? I imagine that everything I’ve ever been through is contributing on some level to the decisions I make, but I’m not privy to them. …
The addiction piece, I have to say, is a huge part of my life. Not just my own, but that of many people I love. The helplessness around that, and learning to deal with that, and all the various 12-step programs I’ve been a part of over the years, and how much they’ve helped me, and how hard it is to love somebody who is going through that, and remain distant enough to not let it crush you each time. All that stuff is of tremendous interest to me. That keeps me very deeply involved in Jackie’s journey.”

    Edie Falco, star of the Showtime series Nurse Jackie, joins Fresh Air to discuss life in scrubs, addiction, and the years she spent as Carmela Soprano on The Sopranos. Like her character Jackie, Falco herself struggles with addiction. Terry asked if that’s what made her interested in the role: 

    "I have to say, I never really know what makes me want to do a role. It’s some sort of wordless place, you know? I imagine that everything I’ve ever been through is contributing on some level to the decisions I make, but I’m not privy to them. …

    The addiction piece, I have to say, is a huge part of my life. Not just my own, but that of many people I love. The helplessness around that, and learning to deal with that, and all the various 12-step programs I’ve been a part of over the years, and how much they’ve helped me, and how hard it is to love somebody who is going through that, and remain distant enough to not let it crush you each time. All that stuff is of tremendous interest to me. That keeps me very deeply involved in Jackie’s journey.”

  2. nurse jackie

    addiction

    sobriety

    edie falco

    interview

    fresh air

  1. Tomorrow: Edie Falco joins us for the first time since The Sopranos to talk about her show Nurse Jackie, parenting, and addiction.  View in High-Res

    Tomorrow: Edie Falco joins us for the first time since The Sopranos to talk about her show Nurse Jackie, parenting, and addiction. 

  2. edie falco

    nurse jackie

    nursing

    addiction

    fresh air

    interview

    the sopranos

  1. In light of yesterday’s announcement that David Letterman will be retiring, we thought we’d share this great tribute by Tina Fey, at the Kennedy Center Honors in 2012.

    And don’t forget this memorable tribute by Jimmy Kimmel from that same night.

    (Kimmel actually talks about that tribute in his Fresh Air interview)

    Also, Terry spoke to David Letterman in 1981 back when Fresh Air was a local show and Letterman was just getting started:

    "If you do one show a year or one show every three months or one show every four months, you have an awful lot of time to realize what a failure you’ve been.  But we do kind of a baseball season: We do a show one night and we hope it’s wonderful, and if not that, we hope it’s good and we hope it isn’t bad. But even if it’s a great show or even if it’s not such a good show, we do another show the next night and we have no time, except in self analysis, to decide why it wasn’t good or even why it was very good."

  2. david letterman

    tina fey

    jimmy kimmel

    comedy

    late night

    fresh air

    interview

  1. New York Times National Security Correspondent David Sanger sees cyber-espionage as a whole new “field of conflict” on the global stage — and that the U.S. isn’t having an open discussion about it:

"The Obama administration has pressed more leak investigations, conducted more leak investigations, launched formal inquiries, or in some cases, criminal cases, than all previous [administrations] combined. And these investigations all have a chilling effect on later stories that you do even if the later stories are on completely different subjects.
I think there’s a lot more concern inside the U.S. government right now about being found to be talking to reporters, even if you’re talking about something that is unclassified. … It’s understandably difficult to get American officials to talk about their plans for potential cyberattacks of cyberdefenses. I understand that, but it’s also very difficult to get officials to talk about our policy about using these cyberweapons as a tool of American power. And that’s what worries me, because in a healthy democracy, I think the American citizens have to be at least informed of — and maybe participate in the debate about — how we want to use these weapons since we are vulnerable to them ourselves.”
View in High-Res

    New York Times National Security Correspondent David Sanger sees cyber-espionage as a whole new “field of conflict” on the global stage — and that the U.S. isn’t having an open discussion about it:

    "The Obama administration has pressed more leak investigations, conducted more leak investigations, launched formal inquiries, or in some cases, criminal cases, than all previous [administrations] combined. And these investigations all have a chilling effect on later stories that you do even if the later stories are on completely different subjects.

    I think there’s a lot more concern inside the U.S. government right now about being found to be talking to reporters, even if you’re talking about something that is unclassified. … It’s understandably difficult to get American officials to talk about their plans for potential cyberattacks of cyberdefenses. I understand that, but it’s also very difficult to get officials to talk about our policy about using these cyberweapons as a tool of American power. And that’s what worries me, because in a healthy democracy, I think the American citizens have to be at least informed of — and maybe participate in the debate about — how we want to use these weapons since we are vulnerable to them ourselves.”

  2. cyberwar

    cybersecurity

    espionage

    david sanger

    NSA

    obama

    new york times

    interview

    fresh air

    dave davies

  1. Congratulations to the winners of the 2013 Peabody Awards! 
The list includes Orange is the New Black, Key & Peele,The Bridge,  The Race Card Project, and our friends at This American Life. 
Two of our most talked about interviews of last year were with “the real Piper,” Piper Kerman, and Orange is the New Black show creator Jenji Kohan. 
Other interviews with Peabody winners include Keegan-Michael Key and Jordan Peele of Key & Peele and the star of The Bridge, Demian Bichir.
We’ve also got reviews of Borgen and Six By Sondheim! View in High-Res

    Congratulations to the winners of the 2013 Peabody Awards

    The list includes Orange is the New Black, Key & Peele,The Bridge,  The Race Card Project, and our friends at This American Life

    Two of our most talked about interviews of last year were with “the real Piper,” Piper Kerman, and Orange is the New Black show creator Jenji Kohan

    Other interviews with Peabody winners include Keegan-Michael Key and Jordan Peele of Key & Peele and the star of The Bridge, Demian Bichir.

    We’ve also got reviews of Borgen and Six By Sondheim!

  2. peabody awards

    orange is the new black

    key & peele

    this american life

    demian bichir

    jenji kohan

    tv

    radio

    interview

    fresh air

    terry gross

  1. Tony Dokoupil didn’t know his father was a drug-smuggler until he was almost 30. When he found out, he wanted to figure out the whole story. His new memoir is called The Last Pirate: A Father, His Son, And The Golden Age of Marijuana. In today’s interview, he shares that story with us:

"In the late 1970s, 90 percent of the marijuana was coming into Florida. It was primarily Colombian, some of it was Jamaican. My father’s weed would be delivered to an old fishing shack in the [Florida] Keys. … It’s only one road that connects that necklace of islands and everyone knew that that was the road on which marijuana was smuggled into the country. So to smuggle on that road took an incredible amount of tolerance for risk.
So my father, despite being a partner in the operation, volunteered, for $25,000 a shot, to drive Winnebagos of weed out of the Keys and into America, just for the sheer thrill of it. He had no financial reason to do it. He had no operational reason to do it. … But by then he was addicted to the sensation of it, to the risk.


photo of Tony Dokoupil and his father via NY Daily News View in High-Res

    Tony Dokoupil didn’t know his father was a drug-smuggler until he was almost 30. When he found out, he wanted to figure out the whole story. His new memoir is called The Last Pirate: A Father, His Son, And The Golden Age of Marijuana. In today’s interview, he shares that story with us:

    "In the late 1970s, 90 percent of the marijuana was coming into Florida. It was primarily Colombian, some of it was Jamaican. My father’s weed would be delivered to an old fishing shack in the [Florida] Keys. … It’s only one road that connects that necklace of islands and everyone knew that that was the road on which marijuana was smuggled into the country. So to smuggle on that road took an incredible amount of tolerance for risk.

    So my father, despite being a partner in the operation, volunteered, for $25,000 a shot, to drive Winnebagos of weed out of the Keys and into America, just for the sheer thrill of it. He had no financial reason to do it. He had no operational reason to do it. … But by then he was addicted to the sensation of it, to the risk.

    photo of Tony Dokoupil and his father via NY Daily News

  2. marijuana

    drug-smuggling

    tony dokoupil

    weed

    memoir

    interview

    fresh air

  1. News: Terry Gross will give the 2014 commencement address at Bryn Mawr College. You can read the announcement here. 

“Whether she’s interviewing a scientist, politician, or rock star, Terry Gross draws out her subjects in a way that gives listeners a real sense of who that person is and what motivates them,” says Bryn Mawr President Kim Cassidy. “Terry is an excellent choice to give this address since learning to ask probing questions is one of the hallmarks of a liberal arts education.” 
View in High-Res

    News: Terry Gross will give the 2014 commencement address at Bryn Mawr College. You can read the announcement here. 

    “Whether she’s interviewing a scientist, politician, or rock star, Terry Gross draws out her subjects in a way that gives listeners a real sense of who that person is and what motivates them,” says Bryn Mawr President Kim Cassidy. “Terry is an excellent choice to give this address since learning to ask probing questions is one of the hallmarks of a liberal arts education.” 

  2. bryn mawr college

    terry gross

    seven sisters

    graduation

    women's college

    fresh air

  1. Actor Bryan Cranston tells Fresh Air’s Terry Gross about how his appearance is an asset: 

I have a very fortunate look for an actor. You can’t really categorize me. My looks aren’t striking, so therefore I’m more capable of sliding into looking like other people, more chameleon-like, as opposed to let’s say, Jon Hamm, who is this handsome, striking, black-haired, chiseled-looking guy. That’s great for Jon, and he’s a friend and I love him, but I don’t know that you would buy him as Walter White. He would have to fight against his looks in order to do that. So there’s a larger range of roles that are available to me than are available to Jon Hamm, simply because of physicality. And I love that.

photo by Kevin Winter/Getty View in High-Res

    Actor Bryan Cranston tells Fresh Air’s Terry Gross about how his appearance is an asset: 

    I have a very fortunate look for an actor. You can’t really categorize me. My looks aren’t striking, so therefore I’m more capable of sliding into looking like other people, more chameleon-like, as opposed to let’s say, Jon Hamm, who is this handsome, striking, black-haired, chiseled-looking guy. That’s great for Jon, and he’s a friend and I love him, but I don’t know that you would buy him as Walter White. He would have to fight against his looks in order to do that. So there’s a larger range of roles that are available to me than are available to Jon Hamm, simply because of physicality. And I love that.

    photo by Kevin Winter/Getty

  2. Bryan Cranston

    breaking bad

    jon hamm

    hollywood

    interview

    fresh air

    acting

  1. Imagine an America that has been plagued for years by a mysterious epidemic of insomnia — an affliction so serious that many are dying from lack of sleep. That’s the futuristic premise of Karen Russell's new novella, Sleep Donation.  Insomniacs can file for dream bankruptcy and receive sleep donations, even from babies. In the interview with Russell she explains why babies are the ideal donor candidates: 

"In our America, most people would agree that an infant doesn’t have the capacity to make a legal gift, but I think the crisis is so severe [that they use babies]. … In my own sleep-deprived state, like, of course everyone wants baby sleep. Wouldn’t that be wonderful? It would be completely uncorrupted by adult nightmares. It would just be some pure black flow from whatever void a baby came from very recently — that kind of deep, pure unconsciousness …
The narrator of the novella discovers accidentally a universal donor; nobody knew that such a thing existed. I was thinking about the horror and the pain and the arbitrary way it seems that some bodies can’t receive transfusions or organ donations; that there’s some kind of congenital suspicion, there’s an immune response, and you [can’t] assimilate this gift. And here’s this tiny [baby and] everyone is elated to discover that she’s a match with every donee. Any insomniac can receive her dreams and sleep. … It’s a silver bullet, that she has this curative property.”

    Imagine an America that has been plagued for years by a mysterious epidemic of insomnia — an affliction so serious that many are dying from lack of sleep. That’s the futuristic premise of Karen Russell's new novella, Sleep Donation.  Insomniacs can file for dream bankruptcy and receive sleep donations, even from babies. In the interview with Russell she explains why babies are the ideal donor candidates: 

    "In our America, most people would agree that an infant doesn’t have the capacity to make a legal gift, but I think the crisis is so severe [that they use babies]. … In my own sleep-deprived state, like, of course everyone wants baby sleep. Wouldn’t that be wonderful? It would be completely uncorrupted by adult nightmares. It would just be some pure black flow from whatever void a baby came from very recently — that kind of deep, pure unconsciousness …

    The narrator of the novella discovers accidentally a universal donor; nobody knew that such a thing existed. I was thinking about the horror and the pain and the arbitrary way it seems that some bodies can’t receive transfusions or organ donations; that there’s some kind of congenital suspicion, there’s an immune response, and you [can’t] assimilate this gift. And here’s this tiny [baby and] everyone is elated to discover that she’s a match with every donee. Any insomniac can receive her dreams and sleep. … It’s a silver bullet, that she has this curative property.”

  2. sleep

    dreaming

    insomnia

    karen russell

    books

    interview

    fresh air

  1. Kimberly Marten speaks with Terry Gross about the goals of President Vladimir Putin —- 

"Putin is primarily focused on his domestic audience, not the international audience…He cares about the small group of elites that are in various circles of power in the Kremlin and immediately surrounding the Kremlin. And by his recent actions, he has shown that he no longer cares about the economic internationalists among the elites — the people who were pushing for Russia to join the World Trade Organization, the people who recognize that Russia’s economy is in stagnation and that the only way to get it out of stagnation is to diversify beyond its petroleum dependence and to really become a player in the international economy.
Putin has chosen, instead, to throw in his lot with ethnic nationalists, who are associated both with conservative elements in the Russian Orthodox Church and with the former KGB.”



Photo of President Putin signing a bill making Crimea and the city of Sevastopol part of Russia via Sergei Chirikov/Pool/EPA/Landov

View in High-Res

    Kimberly Marten speaks with Terry Gross about the goals of President Vladimir Putin —- 

    "Putin is primarily focused on his domestic audience, not the international audience…He cares about the small group of elites that are in various circles of power in the Kremlin and immediately surrounding the Kremlin. And by his recent actions, he has shown that he no longer cares about the economic internationalists among the elites — the people who were pushing for Russia to join the World Trade Organization, the people who recognize that Russia’s economy is in stagnation and that the only way to get it out of stagnation is to diversify beyond its petroleum dependence and to really become a player in the international economy.

    Putin has chosen, instead, to throw in his lot with ethnic nationalists, who are associated both with conservative elements in the Russian Orthodox Church and with the former KGB.”

    Photo of President Putin signing a bill making Crimea and the city of Sevastopol part of Russia via Sergei Chirikov/Pool/EPA/Landov

  2. Crimea

    Russia

    Fresh Air

    Kimberly Marten

    Vladimir Putin